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8th World Conference on Applied Microbiology and Beneficial Microbes, will be organized around the theme “”
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Microorganisms or microbes are minute organisms that exist as unicellular, multicellular, or cell clusters. Microorganisms are extensive in nature and are beneficial to life, but certain can cause serious harm. They can be divided into six major types: bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, and viruses. Microorganism is the word used in plural & microbe as singular (pure dictionary differentiation). Microbes are micro-organisms. They are so minute that you can't see them without a microscope. Microbes are easy to work with and thus provide a simple vehicle for studying the complex processes of life; as such they have become a powerful tool for studies in genetics and metabolism at the molecular level. This intensive probing into the functions of microbes has resulted in numerous and often unexpected dividends.
Medical microbiology, the enormous subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a dissection of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In accumulation, this arena of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion. A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. The academic qualification as a clinical/Medical Microbiologist in a hospital or therapeutic research Centre generally requires a Masters in Microbiology along with Ph.D. in any of the life-sciences (Biochem, Micro, Biotech, Genetics, etc.).
Industrial microbiology is a union of biotechnology that smears microbial sciences to create industrial products in mass quantities, often using microbial cell factories. There are numerous ways to operate a microorganism in order to increase maximum product yields. Introduction of mutations into an organism may be accomplished by introducing them to mutagens. Another way to increase production is by gene amplification, this is done by the use of plasmids, and vectors. The plasmids and/ or vectors are used to integrate multiple copies of a specific gene that would permit more enzymes to be produced that eventually cause more product yield. The impact of organisms in order to yield a specific product has many applications to the real world like the production of some antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, solvents, alcohol and daily products. Microorganisms play a big role in the industry, with multiple ways to be used. Medicinally, microbes can be used for creating antibiotics in order to treat antibiotics. Microbes can similarly be used for the food industry as well.
Microbes (or microorganisms) are organisms that are too minor to be seen by the unaided eye. They include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, microalgae, and viruses. Microbes live in acquainted settings such as soil, water, food, and animal intestines, as well as in more extreme settings such as rocks, glaciers, hot springs, and deep-sea vents. The extensive variation of microbial habitats replicates an enormous diversity of biochemical and metabolic traits that have arisen by genetic variation and natural selection in microbial populations. Microbial biotechnology, enabled by genome revisions, will lead to breakthroughs such as enhanced vaccines and improved disease-diagnostic tools, improved microbial agents for biological control of plant and animal pests, alterations of plant and animal pathogens for reduced virulence, expansion of new industrial catalysts and fermentation organisms, and development of new microbial agents for bioremediation of soil and water contaminated by agricultural runoff.
Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that constrain, generate, or contaminate food. This contains the study of microorganisms triggering food spoilage; as well as, pathogens that might cause disease especially if food is improperly cooked or stored. Those used to produce fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine. Then those researchers with other useful roles such as producing probiotics. Food safety is a chief focus of food microbiology. Many agents of disease and pathogens are voluntarily transmitted via food which comprises bacteria and viruses. Microbial toxins are also possible contaminants of food; however, microorganisms and their products can also be used to combat these pathogenic microbes. Probiotic bacteria, including those that produce Bacteriocins can kill and inhibit pathogens. Instead, purified Bacteriocins such as nisin can be added directly to food products.
Veterinary Microbiology deals with microbial (bacterial, fungal, viral) diseases of domesticated vertebrate animals (livestock, companion animals, fur-bearing animals, game, poultry, and fish) that supply food, other beneficial products or companionship. In accumulation, Microbial ailments of wild animals living in captivity, or as associates of the feral fauna will also be considered if the infections are of interest because of their interrelation with humans (zoonoses) and/or domestic animals. Studies of antimicrobial resistance are also included, provided that the results represent a substantial advance in knowledge. Veterinary microbiologists are veterinarians that specialize in the study of microorganisms that cause infectious disease in animal species. These disease-causing agents may contain bacteria, viruses, toxins, and parasites. They can also focus their research on one precise animal species or group of interest.
Bacteriological water investigation is a technique of analyzing water to estimate the numbers of bacteria present and, if needed, to find out what sort of bacteria they are. It represents one aspect of water quality. It is a microbiological analytical method which uses samples of water and from these samples controls the concentration of bacteria. It is then possible to draw implications about the appropriateness of the water for use from these concentrations. This process is used, for example, to routinely confirm that water is safe for human consumption or that bathing and recreational waters are safe to use. The elucidation and the action trigger levels for diverse waters vary depending on the use made of the water. Whilst very stringent levels apply to drinking water, more comfortable levels apply to marine bathing waters, where much inferior volumes of water are expected to be ingested by users.
Novel phases of applied microbiology in relation to animal health, it is projected to describe and enhance understanding of the role of microorganisms in animal health and disease, and provides a tremendous grounding in microbiology molecular biology, immunology and epidemiology. This grounding leads into the study of the complex mechanisms of host/microbe interactions that are involved in the pathogenesis of specific animal diseases, and provides insights into diagnosis and interventions, such as vaccines, essential for disease control.
Forensic microbiology, like further zones of forensic science, deals with determining the cause of death and the identification of people who have committed crimes. A vital role of forensic microbiology is to regulate the “microbial signature” of an agent recovered in a criminal case. Forensic microbiology used in conjunction with forensic anthropology can be used to help trace individuals to specific areas. Forensic anthropologists, for example, often chart the migration patterns of ethnic groups through DNA analysis. These patterns -- and the microsatellites collected from specimens -- are recorded into databases.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology is an applied branch of Microbiology. It involves the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals e.g. minimizing the number of microorganisms in a process environment, excluding microorganisms and microbial byproducts like exotoxin and endotoxin from water and other starting materials, and ensuring the finished pharmaceutical product is sterile. Other aspects of pharmaceutical microbiology include the research and development of anti-infective agents, the use of microorganisms to detect mutagenic and carcinogenic activity in prospective drugs, and the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products like insulin and human growth hormone.
Oral microbiology is the study of the microbes (micro biota) of the oral cavity and their connections between oral microorganisms or with the host. The environment extant in the human mouth is appropriate to the growth of characteristic microorganisms found there. It provides a source of water and nutrients, as well as a moderate temperature. Resident microbes of the mouth adhere to the teeth and gums to resist mechanical flushing from the mouth to stomach where acid-sensitive microbes are destroyed by hydrochloric acid. Oral bacteria have advanced mechanisms to sense their environment and avoid or modify the host. Bacteria occupy the ecological niche provided by both the tooth surface and gingival epithelium. However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial invasion of local tissues.
It is a term representative of the amalgamation of several sciences. Under this banner, fields of bionics, genetic engineering and cybernetics are all in play. This collective study of different sciences coming together has allowed us to explore how robotics can interact with biology. In its wake, Bio robotics essentially allows robotics to be a substantial substitute for biological organism in a chemical as well as a mechanical capacity. Bio robotics replicates the biological understanding of living organisms and reproduces their characteristics through artificial means. The theoretical discipline of comprehensively engineering genetic information to develop new robotic designs is one aspect of Bio robotics. Another aspect is the use of biological specimens as components of a functioning robot.
The host–pathogen interface is distinct as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This tenure is most usually used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. Because of this, the definition has been expanded to how known pathogens survive within their host, whether they cause disease or not. On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear. Viruses can also contaminate the host with contagious DNA, which can affect normal cell processes (transcription, translation, etc.), protein folding, or evading the immune response.
Paleomicrobiology – Past Human Infections' features the approaches and main attainments in this emerging field of research at the intersection of microbiology and evolution, history and anthropology. New molecular approaches have already provided exciting results, such as confirmation of a single biotype of Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of historical plague pandemics, and the closer proximity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from ancient skeletons to modern strains than to Mycobacterium bovis, shedding new light on the evolution of major human pathogens and pathogen–population relationships. Firm microbiological diagnoses also provide historians and anthropologists with new data on which to base evaluation of past epidemics.
Microbial forensics states to the exploration of the use of bioweapon, and the accidental release or natural development of dangerous microorganisms. The span may also comprise the study of a person’s specific Microbiome for means of identification, the location of a crime and the time of death of an individual based on the progress of the Microbiome during decomposition.
Geomicrobiology is the scientific field at the intersection of geology and microbiology. It apprehensions the part of microbes on geological and geochemical processes and effects of minerals and metals to microbial growth, activity and survival. Such interactions occur in the geosphere (rocks, minerals, soils, and sediments), the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. Geomicrobiology studies microorganisms that are driving the Earth's biogeochemical cycles, mediating mineral precipitation and dissolution, and sorbing and concentrating metals. The requests include for example bioremediation, mining, climate change mitigation and public drinking water supplies.
Prebiotics are a sort of fiber that the human body cannot digest. They aid as food for probiotics, which are tiny living microorganisms, including bacteria and yeast. Both prebiotics and probiotics may support helpful bacteria and other organisms in the gut. Prebiotics and probiotics both support the body in building and maintaining a healthy colony of bacteria and other microorganisms, which supports the gut and aids digestion. These food mechanisms help endorse beneficial bacteria by providing food and creating an environment where microorganisms can flourish. Prebiotics are present in fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Probiotics occur in many fermented foods, including yogurt, sauerkraut, and tempeh.
Soil microbiology is the study of microorganisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties. It is believed that between two and four billion years ago, the first ancient bacteria and microorganisms came about on Earth's oceans. These bacteria could fix nitrogen, in time multiplied, and as a result released oxygen into the atmosphere. This led to more advanced microorganisms, which are important because they affect soil structure and fertility. Soil microorganisms can be categorized as bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae and protozoa. Each of these clusters has features that define them and their functions in soil. Up to 10 billion bacterial cells inhabit each gram of soil in and around plant roots, a region known as the rhizosphere.
The human Microbiome is the cumulative of all microbiota that reside on or within human tissues and bio fluids along with the consistent anatomical sites in which they reside, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Kinds of human microbiota contain bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses. Though micro-animals can also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. In the atmosphere of genomics, the occupancy human Microbiome is occasionally used to rise to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.
The host–pathogen collaboration is defined as how microbes or viruses endure themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This period is most frequently used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. Because of this, the definition has been prolonged to how known pathogens persist within their host, whether they cause disease or not. On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear. Viruses can also contaminate the host with virulent DNA, which can affect normal cell processes (transcription, translation, etc.), protein folding, or evading the immune response.