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Microorganisms or microbes are minute organisms that exist as unicellular, multicellular, or cell clusters. Microorganisms are extensive in nature and are beneficial to life, but certain can cause serious harm. They can be divided into six major types: bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, and viruses. Microorganism is the word used in plural & microbe as singular (pure dictionary differentiation). Microbes are micro-organisms. They are so minute that you can't see them without a microscope. Microbes are easy to work with and thus provide a simple vehicle for studying the complex processes of life; as such they have become a powerful tool for studies in genetics and metabolism at the molecular level. This intensive probing into the functions of microbes has resulted in numerous and often unexpected dividends.
Medical microbiology, the enormous subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a dissection of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In accumulation, this arena of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion. A medical microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. The academic qualification as a clinical/Medical Microbiologist in a hospital or therapeutic research Centre generally requires a Masters in Microbiology along with Ph.D. in any of the life-sciences (Biochem, Micro, Biotech, Genetics, etc.).
Soil microbiology is the study of microorganisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties. It is believed that between two and four billion years ago, the first ancient bacteria and microorganisms came about on Earth's oceans. These bacteria could fix nitrogen, in time multiplied, and as a result released oxygen into the atmosphere. This led to more advanced microorganisms, which are important because they affect soil structure and fertility. Soil microorganisms can be categorized as bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae and protozoa. Each of these clusters has features that define them and their functions in soil. Up to 10 billion bacterial cells inhabit each gram of soil in and around plant roots, a region known as the rhizosphere.
Industrial microbiology is a union of biotechnology that smears microbial sciences to create industrial products in mass quantities, often using microbial cell factories. There are numerous ways to operate a microorganism in order to increase maximum product yields. Introduction of mutations into an organism may be accomplished by introducing them to mutagens. Another way to increase production is by gene amplification, this is done by the use of plasmids, and vectors. Microorganisms play a big role in the industry, with multiple ways to be used. Medicinally, microbes can be used for creating antibiotics in order to treat antibiotics. Microbes can similarly be used for the food industry as well.
Prebiotics are a sort of fiber that the human body cannot digest. They aid as food for probiotics, which are tiny living microorganisms, including bacteria and yeast. Both prebiotics and probiotics may support helpful bacteria and other organisms in the gut. Prebiotics and probiotics both support the body in building and maintaining a healthy colony of bacteria and other microorganisms, which supports the gut and aids digestion. These food mechanisms help endorse beneficial bacteria by providing food and creating an environment where microorganisms can flourish. Prebiotics are present in fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Probiotics occur in many fermented foods, including yogurt, sauerkraut, and tempeh.
The human Microbiome is the cumulative of all microbiota that reside on or within human tissues and bio fluids along with the consistent anatomical sites in which they reside, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary tract, and gastrointestinal tract. Kinds of human microbiota contain bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses. Though micro-animals can also live on the human body, they are typically excluded from this definition. In the atmosphere of genomics, the occupancy human Microbiome is occasionally used to rise to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms.
Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that constrain, generate, or contaminate food. This contains the study of microorganisms triggering food spoilage; as well as, pathogens that might cause disease especially if food is improperly cooked or stored. Those used to produce fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine. Then those researchers with other useful roles such as producing probiotics. Food safety is a chief focus of food microbiology. Many agents of disease and pathogens are voluntarily transmitted via food which comprises bacteria and viruses.
Veterinary Microbiology deals with microbial (bacterial, fungal, viral) diseases of domesticated vertebrate animals (livestock, companion animals, fur-bearing animals, game, poultry, and fish) that supply food, other beneficial products or companionship. In accumulation, Microbial ailments of wild animals living in captivity, or as associates of the feral fauna will also be considered if the infections are of interest because of their interrelation with humans (zoonoses) and/or domestic animals. Studies of antimicrobial resistance are also included, provided that the results represent a substantial advance in knowledge. Veterinary microbiologists are veterinarians that specialize in the study of microorganisms that cause infectious disease in animal species.
It is a term representative of the amalgamation of several sciences. Under this banner, fields of bionics, genetic engineering and cybernetics are all in play. This collective study of different sciences coming together has allowed us to explore how robotics can interact with biology. In its wake, Bio robotics essentially allows robotics to be a substantial substitute for biological organism in a chemical as well as a mechanical capacity. Bio robotics replicates the biological understanding of living organisms and reproduces their characteristics through artificial means.
Bacteriological water investigation is a technique of analyzing water to estimate the numbers of bacteria present and, if needed, to find out what sort of bacteria they are. It represents one aspect of water quality. It is a microbiological analytical method which uses samples of water and from these samples controls the concentration of bacteria. It is then possible to draw implications about the appropriateness of the water for use from these concentrations. This process is used, for example, to routinely confirm that water is safe for human consumption or that bathing and recreational waters are safe to use. The elucidation and the action trigger levels for diverse waters vary depending on the use made of the water.
Geomicrobiology is the scientific field at the intersection of geology and microbiology. It apprehensions the part of microbes on geological and geochemical processes and effects of minerals and metals to microbial growth, activity and survival. Such interactions occur in the geosphere (rocks, minerals, soils, and sediments), the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. Geomicrobiology studies microorganisms that are driving the Earth's biogeochemical cycles, mediating mineral precipitation and dissolution, and sorbing and concentrating metals. The requests include for example bioremediation, mining, climate change mitigation and public drinking water supplies.
The host–pathogen interface is distinct as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This tenure is most usually used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. Because of this, the definition has been expanded to how known pathogens survive within their host, whether they cause disease or not. On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear. Viruses can also contaminate the host with contagious DNA, which can affect normal cell processes ,protein folding, or evading the immune response.
Novel phases of applied microbiology in relation to animal health, it is projected to describe and enhance understanding of the role of microorganisms in animal health and disease, and provides a tremendous grounding in microbiology molecular biology, immunology and epidemiology. This grounding leads into the study of the complex mechanisms of host/microbe interactions that are involved in the pathogenesis of specific animal diseases, and provides insights into diagnosis and interventions, such as vaccines, essential for disease control.
Forensic microbiology, like further zones of forensic science, deals with determining the cause of death and the identification of people who have committed crimes. A vital role of forensic microbiology is to regulate the “microbial signature” of an agent recovered in a criminal case. Forensic microbiology used in conjunction with forensic anthropology can be used to help trace individuals to specific areas. Forensic anthropologists, for example, often chart the migration patterns of ethnic groups through DNA analysis. These patterns -- and the microsatellites collected from specimens -- are recorded into databases.
Pharmaceutical Microbiology is an applied branch of Microbiology. It involves the study of microorganisms associated with the manufacture of pharmaceuticals e.g. minimizing the number of microorganisms in a process environment, excluding microorganisms and microbial byproducts like exotoxin and endotoxin from water and other starting materials, and ensuring the finished pharmaceutical product is sterile. Other aspects of pharmaceutical microbiology include the research and development of anti-infective agents, the use of microorganisms to detect mutagenic and carcinogenic activity in prospective drugs, and the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products like insulin and human growth hormone.
In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. It examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal–bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbiosis, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. It highlights the recent technological and intellectual advances that have changed our thinking about five questions: how have bacteria facilitated the origin and evolution of animals; how is homeostasis maintained between animals and their symbionts; and how can ecological approaches deepen our understanding of the multiple levels of animal–bacterial interaction and to include investigations of the relationships between and among bacteria and their animal partners as we are going to seek a better understanding of the natural world.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This term is most commonly used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. Because of this, the definition has been expanded to how known pathogens survive within their host, whether they cause disease or not. On the molecular and cellular level, microbes can infect the host and divide rapidly, causing disease by being there and causing a homeostatic imbalance in the body, or by secreting toxins which cause symptoms to appear. Viruses can also infect the host with virulent DNA, which can affect normal cell processes (transcription, translation, etc.), protein folding, or evading the immune response.
Microbes inhabit virtually all sites of the human body, yet we know very little about the role they play in our health. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in studying human-associated microbial communities, particularly since microbial disposes have now been implicated in a number of human diseases. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have made it feasible to perform large-scale studies of microbial communities, providing the tools. Rapidly developing sequencing methods and analytical techniques, the human micro biome on different spatial and temporal scales, including daily time series datasets spanning months. Furthermore, emerging concepts related to defining operational taxonomic units, diversity indices, core versus transient micro biomes, are enhancing our ability to understand the human micro biome.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals". Public health aims to improve the quality of life through prevention and treatment of disease, including mental health. This is done through the surveillance of cases and health indicators, and through the promotion of healthy behaviors. Public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population. Its activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases.